© 2019 by ESA-JRC International Summer School on GNSS


Prof. Bertram Arbesser-Rastburg


Prof. Bertram Arbesser-Rastburg is Senior Advisor at SpaceTec Partners. After studying Electrical Engineering at the Technical University of Graz, Austria, he worked as research assistant with T.U.-Graz / Joanneum Research Graz and then as Propagation Engineer at INTELSAT in Washington, D.C. In 1988 he joined the European Space Agency where he was initially responsible for the planning and implementation of wave propagation studies for all aspects of satellite communication, navigation and earth observation. From 2007 to 2013 he was Head of the Electromagnetics and Space Environment Division of the European Space Agency, responsible for R&D and project support in the fields of antennas, propagation, EMC and space environment. He supported the EGNOS and the Galileo Programme in questions of propagation effects and in the development of correction algorithms. He was coordinator of the European part of the SBAS-IONO Group and Secretary of the Galileo Science Advisory Committee and Chairman of ITU-R SG3 (Propagation). He has lectured at summer schools in Alpbach, Erice, Berchtesgaden, Slettestrand, Toulouse, Davos, Ostrava, Barcelona and Ispra. He is president of the Austrian Institute of Navigation.

Lecture:  Ionospheric and Tropospheric Effects on GNSS
This lecture gives a definition of ionosphere and troposphere and provides an introduction to propagation effects in general. The main effects on satellite navigation systems are explained and quantified. Propagation prediction models are introduced as well as the underlying global maps of total electron content (TEC) and integrated water vapour. Ways of measuring the effects are shown as well as methods for mitigation of the effects on GNSS receivers. The area of scientific experiments using GNSS receivers for retrieving water vapour, total electron content and profiles of ionosphere and troposphere will also be addressed.


Dr. José-Angel Avila-Rodriguez

Dr. José-Ángel Ávila-Rodríguez joined the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2010 and is currently appointed as GNSS Evolutions Signal and Security Principal Engineer in the GNSS/Galileo Evolution Programme and Strategy Division of ESA. Between 2003 and 2010 he was a senior research associate at the Institute of Geodesy and Navigation at the University of the Federal Armed Forces Munich. Ávila-Rodríguez studied at the Technical Universities of Vienna, Austria, and Madrid, Spain, where he received a Master's degree in electrical engineering. He received a Master's degree in economics from the Spanish UNED University and a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering in signal design for GNSS from the University of the Federal Armed Forces Munich, Germany. During his career, Dr. Ávila-Rodríguez has been a key contributor to the international interoperability and compatibility efforts leading to the Galileo signal plan, supporting the Galileo program in numerous working groups of the  European Space Agency, the European Commission, and the Galileo Joint Undertaking. He was recipient of the 2008 Parkinson Award and the 2009 ION Early Achievement Award, both from the U.S. Institute of Navigation. Dr. Rodriguez received on 15 June 2017 the "European Inventor Award" in the category "Research" together with its team for the invention of two new primary signals of Galileo for a better satellite navigation.

Lecture:  Evolution of Galileo

Current efforts of the Galileo System  towards its so-called Galileo Second Generation – G2G are presented. Various possibilities are shown in blocks and include, amongst others, discussions on new Launch Strategies (Electrical Propulsion – EP), promising new technologies in clocks, amplifiers, signal generators and other fundamental payload and platform components, Improvements of the Galileo Services in general, authentication, inter-satellite links (ISL), new orbits such as the Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite (IGSO) Orbit, etc.

Dr. Jeff Austin


Dr. Jeff Austin is currently Partner and Managing Director of Redline Leadership Associates, an international firm that specializes in leadership and management development, strategy, and team effectiveness. His consulting work includes over twenty years involvement with the space industry (including teaching in the Space Systems Engineering Masters program (SpaceTech) at Delft Technical University for 15 years and now with a new home at Technical University Graz.). Jeff recently spent seven years as Senior Vice President at TSSI, a world leader in durable medical equipment. Jeff headed up the people side of the business for this 2400 person company. Previously, Dr. Austin was Assistant Vice President for Leadership and Organizational Development at USAA, a large financial services corporation with regional offices in the United States and Europe. At USAA, he was responsible for all leadership and management education, project management education and consultation, and organizational development consulting throughout the enterprise. Prior to that, Dr. Austin was Deputy Head of the Behavioral Sciences and Leadership Department at the United States Air Force Academy. His department included undergraduate education in psychology, organizational behavior, human factors engineering, sociology and leadership.

Lecture:  Leadership and Team Effectiveness 
Central to the success of any engineering endeavor is the art and skill of leaders at all levels of the organization. We'll discuss leadership at the team level, look at the evolving roles from technical engineering expert, to team and project leader, and finally to senior leadership roles. We will explore the shift from process to systems thinking. Additionally, every participant will be given an assessment to begin the conversation about team leadership. 


Coaching of the group project


Dr. Luísa Bastos

Dr. Luísa Bastos received her Engineer and PhD degrees in in Surveying Engineering from the University of Porto (UP). She is Principal Researcher of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto (FCUP), where she is director of the Astronomical Observatory since 1997.

She is now Head of the “Ocean Dynamics, Coastal and Water Systems” group at the Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR). She started her collaboration with CIIMAR in 2002 where she has been a member of the Board of Directors from 2013 to 2016. Between 2010 and 2015 she was Vice-President of the Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial Planning (DGAOT) of the FCUP and a member of the UP Board of Directors of the Marine Research and Innovation Center.

She has been working in Satellite Positioning and Navigation for more than 30 years, with special focus on the use of GNSS based solutions in various domains. More recently her research is focus on the development of GNSS based multi-sensor marine technologies and its exploitation in different fields (e.g., coastal and estuarine dynamics monitoring, coastal oceanography airborne gravimetry, mobile mapping), using several types of platforms (terrestrial, marine and airborne, including UAVs). In the last decade she has been involved in national and international projects in the field of ocean, coastal and estuarine dynamics and associated impacts.

In the last 20 years she has been teaching in Msc. and Bsc. courses (lectures in Satellite Positioning and Navigation) and was/is responsible for the supervision of researchers at the Post-graduate, PhD and Post-doc levels. In 2015 she was invited as Distinguished Professor at the Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University at Weihai, China.



Prof. Orfeu Bertolami

Professor Orfeu Bertolami, Departamento de Fsica e AstronomiaFaculdade de Ci^encias, Universidade do Porto.

Born in Sao Paulo, Brazil, he earned his Ph. D. in Theoretical Physics at Oxford in 1987, where he worked on the cosmological implications of supergravity and superstring theories. He is full professor in the Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto and chairman of the Physics and Astronomy Department since 2013. His research ranges from Astrophysics to Classical and Quantum Gravity, from Space Science to implications of Superstring Theory and more recently on physical models of the Earth System. He has published more than 330 papers, more than 190 of which in specailized refereed journals. He has been a consultant scientist of the European Space Agency (ESA), and till December 2012 was a member of ESA's Galileo Science Advisory Committee. His most recent work include the solution to the Pioneer anomaly as due to onboard thermal eff ects, the development of the phase-phase non-commutative quantum mechanics, the exaustive study of alternative theories of gravity with non-minimal coupling between curvature and matter, and uni ed and interacting models of dark matter and dark energy.
He is quite active in delivering public lectures on various topics of physics and science in general. These include topics such as the Big-Bang model, the COBE and WMAP satellites and the cosmic microwave background
radiation, the information paradox in black holes, superstring theory, the Pioneer anomaly puzzle, Special and General Relativity, the problem of the origin of life, the relation between science and literature, among others.
In 2006, Gradiva, a well known editorial house in the Portuguese speaking world for its collection of science books, published his \O Livro das Escolhas Cosmicas" (The Book of Cosmic Choices), a 340 pages account of the history
of the cosmological thinking, from the ancient myths of creation till the most recent theoretical developments and observational discoveries.

Dr. Daniele Borio


Dr. Daniele Borio is a scientific technical officer at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission since November 2013. From October 2010 to October 2013, he was a post-doctoral fellow at JRC. From January 2008 to September 2010, he was a senior research associate in the PLAN group of the University of Calgary, Canada. His research interests include the fields of location, navigation, digital and wireless communications. Dr. Borio received the M.S. degree in Communications Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy, the M.S. degree in Electronics Engineering from ENSERG/ INPG de Grenoble, France, in 2004, and the doctoral degree in electrical engineering from Politecnico di Torino in April 2008.

Lecture: GNSS Threats: Receiver Level Defenses
GNSS signal reception is vulnerable to several forms of interference which can be either intentional or unintentional in nature. The power of strong RF interference can overwhelm the much weaker GNSS signals, significantly degrading the performance of a GNSS receiver. In this lecture, different approaches to mitigate the impact of RF interference and jamming at the receiver level are discussed. The problem of interference detection and mitigation is introduced and several approaches, such as notch filtering and pulse blanking, are discussed. Interference detection and mitigation are explained in terms of detection and estimation theory and general concepts for the design of detection and mitigation techniques are provided. Practical examples are used to clarify theoretical concepts.


Lab on GNSS Signal Processing

The goal of this lab is to provide the students with hands-on experience of the various signal processing stages of a GNSS receiver. The experiments conducted during the lab will complement the notions introduced during the lectures and will allow the students to directly experiment on real GNSS data. 
The lab is divided in three parts that will analyze acquisition, tracking and measurement generation. The students will be provided with a short data set containing baseband GPS L1 C/A and Galileo E1 signals. Signal acquisition and tracking will be performed on the provided dataset. Some basic Matlab scripts for acquiring and tracking GPS L1 C/A signals will be also provided.

The correlators provided by the tracking loops will be used to extract the Time Of Week (TOW) that, combined with other tracking loop outputs, will be used to generate pseudorange measurements. Doppler and carrier phase measurements will also be discussed.

The lab is divided into exercises that require the modification of the basic acquisition and tracking scripts and the addition of new functionalities.


Prof. Michel Bousquet


Prof. Michel Bousquet is Vice Dean Masters for tailored programmes at ISAE (www.isae.fr), the French Aerospace Engineering Institute of Higher Education, and director of satellite communications and navigation masters. He co-chairs the Scientific Board of TeSA (www.tesa.fr), a cooperative research lab on aerospace communications and navigation. With research interest covering several facets of satellite systems, Prof Bousquet has participated to many R&D programmes/projets (COST, FPs, SatNex NoE). He co-authored many papers and books (e.g. Satellite Communication Systems) and sits on the Board of several International Conferences and Journals to promote space communication and navigation R&D activities. 

- GNSS RF Link Performance

The radiofrequency link plays a significant role in the performance of communication and navigation systems. Information is conveyed thanks to the use of carrier modulation often combined with channel coding. Several RF carriers can share the same radio resource thanks to multiple access techniques. The lecture introduces the various concepts and waveforms relevant for satellite links, in particular with navigation systems. The main parameters and factors conditioning the link performance are discussed.

- Space Communications/Positioning with Communication Systems.
The lecture gives a broad introduction to satellite communications: system architecture depending on application, type of orbits of interest, evolution in terms of technology and services, etc. This overview supports the description of communication satellite based augmentation systems (SBAS) to augment the performances of GNSS. Integrated Satcom/Satnav applications examples and principles of positioning using various communication systems technologies (WiFi, UWB, etc conclude the presentation.


Aude de Clercq


Aude de Clercq earned a joint degree in law and translation in France before she moved to the United States to specialize in public management.

She started her career at ESA’s legal department in Paris, then moved to the Netherlands where she managed a start-up company during its incubation period at the incubator of ESA Technology Transfer Programme Office (TTPO), in ESTEC. When the start-up graduated from the incubation programme, she started working for ESA TTP as a Technology Transfer Officer.

At TTP she is now in charge of the management and exploitation of ESA’s portfolio of patents and the Network of Technology brokers deployed by the programme throughout ESA’s Member States.


Lecture and Workshop: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and Patents in GNSS

Introduction in Intellectual Property Rights in particular Patents, Copyright, Trademarks and Internet domain name protection followed by examples in the field of GNSS.

Cornelis (Niels) Eldering


Cornelis (Niels) Eldering is Technology Transfer Officer at the Technology Transfer Programme Office of the European Space Agency (ESA). 

Niels was instrumental in the definition and set-up of ESA's business incubation strategy back in 2002 and together with his team he continues to advance Technology Transfer and Business Incubation in Europe. The primary aim of the ESA Business Incubation Centres (ESA BICs) is to provide support to entrepreneurs who wish to exploit space-based solutions into non-space markets. ESA currently has 20 Business Incubation Centers across its member states and 60 locations where ESA incubation services are offered. This incubation approach has been adopted for similar technology transfer activities by CERN, Fraunhofer and Airbus Defence and Space. Niels has chaired over 100 evaluation boards for start-up company selection and evaluated over 1.800 business cases, including ideas filed for the European Satellite Navigation Competition.

Niels holds a Master of Science in Business Administration from the Rotterdam School of Management (RSM), where he in 2003 completed his research on setting up a strategy for ESA Business Incubation Centres. Passionately engaged in the challenging process from exploration to exploitation of space technology, he regularly provides keynote presentations on conferences as well as guest lectures such as to the CEMS Master in International Management. In 2015 he received the RSM Distinguished Alumni Award for Senior Leader due to his efforts in creating benefits for society by engaging business and education with space technology.

Niels is living in the Netherlands with his family and working at ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk.

Lecture: Become a GNSS Entrepreneur & Develop a Business Plan

In the first part of this lecture, we will explore the main concepts of technology transfer, satellite application and business innovation from an entrepreneurship perspective. Not only will you obtain a basic understanding of entrepreneurship, the types of entrepreneurs and where do entrepreneurs come from, we will also look at the main challenges particularly emerging entrepreneurs face.
The second part of the lecture will focus on business incubation as a tool to support nascent entrepreneurs. We will go through a short history of the emergence of business incubation centres in our economy, look at typologies of business incubators and learn about best practices and the principles of business incubation; particularly against the backdrop of ESA’s own business incubation centers, the ESA BICs. In addition we will train you on using the Business Model Canvas. This is a business modelling approach that was developed by Alex Osterwalder and now widely used. The canvas maps out all the important business activities and helps you not only understand business models of existing companies, but it is also a great tool if you would like to set up your own business. We will go through a number of business cases of very known businesses and our own ESA BIC start-ups, to get you acquainted with the business model canvas.

Dr. Christopher J. Hegarty


Dr. Christopher J. Hegarty is the Director for CNS Engineering & Spectrum with The MITRE Corporation, where he has worked mainly on aviation applications of GNSS since 1992. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and a D.Sc. degree in EE from the George Washington University. He is currently the Chair of the Program Management Committee of RTCA, Inc., and co-chairs RTCA Special Committee 159 (GNSS). He served as editor of the U.S. Institute of Navigation (ION)’s quarterly journal, NAVIGATION, from 1997 – 2006 and as ION president in 2008. He is a Fellow of the ION and IEEE, the recipient of the 2005 ION Kepler Award, and co-editor/co-author of the textbook Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications, 2nd Ed.


GNSS Receivers – This lecture provides an overview of GNSS receiver signal processing, including a description of the basic techniques employed to acquire, track, and demodulate the navigation data from received GNSS signals. Typical hardware components of a modern, digital GNSS receiver are also described. 

GNSS Signals – This lecture provides an overview of digital modulation techniques used for satellite navigation systems, including direct sequence spread spectrum, binary offset carrier, and variants. Common design features of modern GNSS signals including pilot components, secondary codes, and multiplexing techniques are described. The lecture also summarizes the specific signal designs used for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, and IRNSS.


Prof. Dr. Guenter W. Hein


Prof. Dr. Guenter W. Hein is the former Head of EGNOS and GNSS Evolution Programme Department (until end of 2014) of the European Space Agency (ESA) where he was in charge of the development of the second generation of EGNOS as well as Galileo. He has been the former Director of the Institute of Geodesy and Navigation of the University FAF Munich. Prof. Hein has more than 300 scientific and technical papers published, carried out at the University more than 200 research projects in satellite navigation and educated more than 50 Ph.D.’s. He received in 2002 the prestigious Johannes Kepler Award for “sustained and significant contributions to satellite navigation” from the US Institute of Navigation and became in 2011 a fellow of the US Institution of Navigation. The Technical University of Prague honored his achievements on satellite navigation with a Doctor honoris causa (Dr. h.c.) in January 2013. The University FAF Munich appointed him as “Emeritus of Excellence” in 2015. He is acting Director of the Excecutive Board of Munich Aerospace e. V. and a scientific consultant of the European Space Agency. Prof. Hein received on 15 June 2017 the "European Inventor Award" in the category "Research" together with its team for the invention of two new primary signals of Galileo for a better satellite navigation.

Lecture: Multi-Frequency Multi System GNSS 
In this lecture the past, present and future status of global and regional satellite systems  – let’s say till 2025-30 – is discussed. With regard to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) we will have soon four operational systems. The questions of radio frequency compatibility and interoperability of signals as well as underlying coordinate and timing reference systems play an important role. Moreover the overall noise floor is increasing and difficulties in acquiring and tracking the many signals in a receiver may cause problems. The way-out is shortly outlined: going from scalar to vector-processing of satellite observations for positioning and navigation.

Lecture: Evolution of Global and Regional Navigation Satellite Systems

All Global Navigation Satellite Navigation Systems GNSS: GPS (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Galileo (European Union), BeiDou (China), are discussed concerning its present status and the plans for evolution as well as the Regional Satellite Navigation Systems RNSS: NavIC (India), QZSS (Japan), KPS (South Korea).

Prof. Dr. Bernhard Hofmann - Wellenhof


Prof. Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof received his Dipl.-Ing. degree in 1976 and his Doctoral degree in 1978 from Graz University of Technology. Since 1986 he has been working as Professor at Graz University of Technology for navigation and satellite geodesy. In 1999, he founded the company TeleConsult Austria and has been one of the Managing Directors. From 2011 to 2015 he was the Vice Rector of Academic Affairs of the Graz University of Technology. 
He is author of several books among them the most recent book “GNSS – GPS, GLONASS, Galileo & more” published at Springer in 2008. This book has also been translated into the Chinese and the Japanese language (2008 and 2009, respectively). He has been awarded by two honorary doctoral degrees (Doctor honoris causa), one from the Todor Kableshkov Higher School of Transport at Sofia, Bulgaria, and the other from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.


Lecture:  Basics of Satellite Navigation 
This lecture is primarily intended for non-GNSS-experts to give an elementary idea on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and cover the key issues of concept, reference systems, satellite orbits, satellite signals, observables, mathematical models for positioning. Each of these subjects will be treated in depth in the subsequent lectures given by the other teachers.

Dipl.-Ing. Naouma Kourti


Dipl.-Ing. Naouma Kourti was born in 1966 in Athens Greece. She was associate affiliate professor of the Georg Mason University (VA) in the subject of security research. She joined the European Commission in 1996 working as a researcher in nuclear safety. Later she became a group leader and pioneer in using remote sensing for the detection and identification of fishing vessels fishing illegally. She then moved in aspects of security focusing in the protection of EU's critical infrastructures. Since 2015 she is the deputy head of the "technology innovation for security" unit.  The unit's subjects of focus are innovative solutions for the protection and resilience of critical infrastructures in Europe, advanced radio signal processing such as 5G, spectrum sharing and interference studies, scientific support to the European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo, hazards in chemical industry and consequences of natural hazards to technological installations as well as possible policy aspects of future quantum technologies.

Prof. Gerard Lachapelle

Prof. Gerard Lachapelle is Professor Emeritus at the University of Calgary, Canada, where he held a Chair in Wireless Location for 14 years, following eight years as head of the department,  and established the PLAN Group in the Department of Geomatics Engineering. He has been involved in industrial and academic GNSS R&D for 35 years, including differential carrier phase positioning, indoor location and interference countermeasures.  He holds post-graduate degrees from the University of Oxford, the University of Helsinki and the Technical University at Graz.  He has published extensively and received numerous awards for his contributions, including the Kepler Award from the Institute of Navigation and honorary professorships from universities in China and Italy. He is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation and The (U.S.) Institute of Navigation and IEEE.



- Code and Carrier Phase Differential and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GNSS code (pseudoranges) and carrier phase observation equations are described term by term, including their error sources. These consist of receiver dependent (noise, channel biases and signal reflection “multipath") and receiver independent errors, the latter being the atmosphere (ionosphere and troposphere) and satellite dependent errors (orbits, satellite clocks and inter-frequency biases).   Three  methods to derive positions from these measurements are described, namely single point positioning for accuracy of one to several metres, differential techniques (DGNSS) for cm to dm level accuracy and Precise Point Positioning (PPP), the latter being a form of differential positioning using corrections calculated using permanent global reference networks and can deliver various accuracy levels ranging from cm to metre level.   Under ideal obstruction-free open sky conditions, the use of carrier phase measurements can deliver position accuracy at the cm level with either the differential or PPP method.  The conditions under which this can be achieved are discussed. Carrier phase measurements are ambiguous and the problem of resolving these ambiguities is addressed. The advantages of multi-frequency measurements to resolve ambiguities and remove the effect of the ionosphere are described.  DGNSS and PPP examples are shown to illustrate the capability and limitations of above measurements and methods for two types of equipment, namely high end geodetic type receivers and low cost Android smartphones.


- Navigation in GNSS Challenging Environments GNSS are designed primarily to operate under unobstructed signal transmission conditions between satellites and receiver antennas. When line-of-sight (LOS) is partly or totally blocked, e.g. under the forestry canopy, in city streets and indoors, signals are attenuated and become either unavailable or affected by large errors. Examples are provided to show related position accuracy and availability degradation. The effect of above conditions on trajectory estimation is illustrated through LOS and non-LOS examples.  Other systems and sensors are used to either complement or replace GNSS in these conditions. These can be classified into two broad categories, namely RF and self-contained sensors.  The first category includes ground signals such as WiFi and Bluetooth. Their use and management are complex due to errors and transmitter location changes. The second category consists of self contained sensors (magnetic, accelerometers, gyros, barometers, optical), now used in most mobile devices, not only to provide location but to measure the physical activity level of pedestrian users. Some of these sensors are also use  for collision avoidances in autonomous and assisted vehicular navigation.


Prof. João Tasso de Figueiredo Borges de Sousa

Prof. João Tasso de Figueiredo Borges de Sousa is a Professor at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department from Porto University in Portugal and the head of the Laboratório de Sistemas e Tecnologias Subaquáticas – LSTS (Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory) - a lab that received the national BES Innovation National Award for the design of the Light Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in 2006. He holds a PhD and an MSc in Electrical Engineering, both awarded by the University of Porto. His research interests include autonomous underwater, surface and air vehicles, planning and execution control for networked vehicle systems, optimization and control, cyber-physical systems, and applications of networked vehicle systems to the ocean sciences, security, and defense. In 2008 he received an outstanding teaching award from Porto University. Aiming at fostering and growing a worldwide research community in the areas of Hybrid Systems, Networked Vehicle Systems and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, he has been involved in yearly conferences and workshops and lecturing on networked vehicle systems in renowned universities in the United States of America and Europe. He was the chair of the 2013 edition of the IFAC Navigation, Guidance and Control Workshop and the chair of the 2018 IEEE OES AUV Symposium, an event in which he received the IEEE Rising Star award. He is a member of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Multi-robots Systems Technical Committee and of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) Marine Systems Technical Committee. He is also a member of the Advisory Board of the Swedish Marine Robotics Center and a member of several NATO committees  He was the chief scientist for the Schmidt Ocean Institute cruise Exploring Fronts with Multiple Robots, which took place in the Pacific Ocean in 2018. He is in the editorial board of several scientific journals. He has authored over 400 publications, including 40 journal papers.


Dr. Javier Ventura-Traveset

Dr. Javier Ventura-Traveset is working since more than 25 years at the European Space Agency (ESA), an organization in which he has been immersed in multiple space programs covering: satellite communications, earth observation, scientific program, microgravity, technology transfer and, notably, satellite navigation. Dr Ventura-Traveset has been Chief Engineer (Principal System Engineer), Mission Manager and System Manager in all phases of the currently operational EGNOS Navigation System, precursor of the European Galileo system. He is currently in charge of coordinating all GNSS scientific activities of ESA, being the Head of the Galileo Navigation Science Office and the Executive Secretary of the ESA GNSS Scientific Advisory Committee.


Dr. Ventura-Traveset holds 4 patents and has authored over 200 technical papers; he is technical co-editor  and co-author of the book “EGNOS - A Cornerstone of Galileo”. Throughout his career he has received several recognitions, such as the Award for the best Doctoral Thesis of the Spanish Association and the Official College of Telecommunications Engineers; the “ESA inventor Award Medal”; the "ESA Team Award" for extraordinary contribution to the European Space Agency on 2 occasions; the prestigious Telecom Engineering Award "Salva y Campillo"; the “Professional Excellence Award” from the  Spanish Association of Telecommunications Engineers ; and several recognitions from the US Institute of Navigation.  Since 2018, Dr Ventura-Traveset is a Member the Royal Academy of Engineering of Spain


Lecture: GNSS and Galileo: a major opportunity for science

In this lecture, we will review the opportunities that GNSS offers for science, notably, on the fields of Fundamental Physics; Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; time Metrology and Space Exploration. We will also describe some of the specific technical features and differentiators of the Galileo system, which makes it especially suitable for scientific applications. Several examples of ESA on-going related research activities will be presented, including the successful tests ESA performed in the field of general relativity with the data of the two eccentric Galileo satellites (GSAT0201 and GSAT0202). To conclude, a discussion will be held on some potential scientific instruments that could be considered for future Galileo satellites, which could provide at the same time a major scientific and operational benefit.

Paul Verhoef - Director of NAV


Paul Verhoef took up duty as the Director of the Galileo Programme and Navigation-related Activities (D/NAV) on 15 February 2016.


Paul Verhoef has a Masters degree in electrical engineering from Eindhoven Technical University. During his studies, he spent a year working for Philips Electrical Industries in New Zealand. In his earlier career, he worked for the United Nations in the South Pacific, based in Suva, Fiji, where, among other things, he supervised the installation of the first satellite Earth station in Papua New Guinea used for international communications links.


In the late 1980s, he worked as ground segment engineer at Eutelsat in Paris on the procurement of the ground segment for the Eutelsat-II satellites. Following that, he set up the Olympus Payload Utilisation Secretariat within ESA’s Telecommunications Department at ESTEC in Noordwijk, from where the coordination of new communications experiments with the Olympus payloads was undertaken.


Since the early 1990s, Paul Verhoef has worked for the European Commission, starting with responsibility for satellite communications policy in the telecommunications policy Directorate, and subsequently with a variety of policy functions in the areas of space, telecommunications, electronic commerce and internet.


He represented the Commission in the G8 Digital Opportunities Task Force (DOT Force), and coordinated the EU position in the first World Summit on the Information Society in 2003. He was seconded for a year and a half as Vice President to ICANN, the non-profit organisation overseeing development and technical coordination of the internet domain names and numbering policies.


From 2005 to 2011, Paul Verhoef was the European Commission's programme manager for the EU Galileo and EGNOS satellite navigation programmes and was responsible for setting up the implementation of the programmes in close cooperation with ESA.


Before taking on his responsibility as ESA Director of the Galileo Programme and Navigation-related Activities in 2016, Paul Verhoef set up a new Research and Innovation team in DG Transport and Mobility (MOVE) of the European Commission and was most recently Head of Unit for ‘Renewable energy sources’ in DG Research and Innovation (RTD).

Dipl. Math. Stefan Wallner

Dipl.-Math. Stefan Wallner is Galileo 2nd Generation Space-to-Ground Interface Engineer in the Navigation Directorate at ESA/ESTEC. He is involved in the Galileo Program since 2003 when he joined the University of the Federal Armed Forces, Munich, and supported the Definition of the Galileo signal structure and their international Radio Frequency Compatibility (RFC) coordination through the Galileo Signal Task Force and the Galileo Compatibility, Signals and Interoperability Working Group. Since 2010 he is involved in the preparation of the 2nd Generation of Galileo covering important evolution directions like Signal and System Robustness, the evolution of the Galileo User Signals including Signal Authentication and Novel Integrity Solutions, for which he was co-chairing the EU/US WG-C Subgroup on ARAIM. Stefan is co-chairing the Working Group on Enhancement of GNSS Performance, New Services and Capabilities in the frame of the United Nations International Committee on GNSS (ICG). Stefan holds a patent application on Spreading Codes for Navigation Systems.



- Satellite-based Augmentation System (SBAS) and Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM, ARAIM)


Safety-of-Life (SoL) related applications (e.g. Aviation, Maritime, Rail) have dedicated requirements that demand specific solutions. Space-Based-Augmentation-Systems (SBAS) and Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) have been developed in order to exploit GNSS signals and services for SoL applications without requiring at the location where the operation shall be conducted local ground installations. This lecture introduces relevant SoL performance metrics and requirements for aviation and maritime users, followed by an outline of the SBAS and RAIM principles, their existing implementations and achieved performance levels. In addition also the future evolution of SBAS towards Dual Frequency Multi Constellation (DFMC) SBAS is presented together with its expected benefits for users. Exploiting the existing interoperability of GNSS signals can enable Advanced RAIM (ARAIM) solutions in the future. These are currently engineered at international level for the provision of horizontal (H-ARAIM) and vertical (V-ARAIM) capabilities. The principles and advantages of ARAIM are discussed in this lecture together with possible implementation solutions.


- GNSS Space Service Volume and Deep Space Navigation

The vast majority of GNSS users are located at the surface of the earth or close to it and GNSS systems are primarily designed to serve these users. However, GNSS signal emissions also extend beyond the earth and are exploited also for positioning and operating satellites up to Geostationary Orbit and even beyond. This lecture describes the benefits of GNSS signals for space users and their specific user and application needs. Particular attention is paid to the interoperable GNSS Space Service Volume (SSV) which can significantly enhance the GNSS signal availability for satellites at altitudes above 8000 km. Concepts allowing for Deep Space Navigation are outlined in this lecture.

Dr. Todd Walter

Todd Walter is a Senior Research Engineer in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University.  He received a B.S. in physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Applied Physics from Stanford University. His research focuses on implementing high-integrity air navigation systems.  He was one of the principal architects of the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) safety processing algorithms, including development of the original ionospheric estimation and confidence bounding algorithm.  He also advises the FAA on alternate means to exploit satellite navigation signals to provide services more efficiently.  He has received the Institute of Navigation’s (ION) Thurlow and Kepler awards.  He is also a fellow of the ION and has served as its president


- GNSS Effects for Aviation

This lecture describes the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to support air navigation.  Particular attention will be paid to challenges that can affect the availability and safety of GNSS based navigation.  The currently operating systems that augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) will be described.  These are Aircraft Based Augmentation Systems (ABAS), Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS), and Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS).  They support differing flight operations and different regions of operations.  Each method is described in detail and how it overcomes the challenges to provide suitable guidance.

- Cyber Security for Civil Navigation
The effects of radio frequency interference (RFI) is one of the largest challenges facing satellite navigation. RFI can overwhelm the desired signals and lead to a loss of navigation.  Even more concerning, is the possibility that undesired signals can be interpreted as the intended signals, leading to corrupted positioning that may go undetected by the user.  This latter spoofing threat may be inadvertent or part of a deliberate attack. The navigation community is working on several powerful technologies to overcome these dangers. These solutions include internal receiver validity checks, advanced receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (ARAIM),  antenna based detection, and comparison to other sensors (such as accelerometers).  ARAIM combats spoofing, because it is difficult to simultaneously replace all of the received signals with counterfeit signals.  However, all of these approaches have limitation. The lecture will describe the threats as well as the trade-offs between the various proposed solutions.